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# Similar images finder (using Autoencoders)
Given a set of query images and a set of store inventory images, we find the top-k similar inventory images that are the most 'similar' to the set of query images in an unsupervised way of training an autoencoder, then using its encoder to embed the images and perform kNN in to find 'similar' images.
<p align="center">
<img src="" width="60%">
In this code, we train a convolutional autoencoder on 36 steakhouse food images (6 of each of steak, potato, french fries, salads, burger, asparagus), and make similar image food recommendations based on the above algorithm to achieve a result of:
<p align="center">
<img src="" width="50%">
<p align="center">
<img src="" width="50%">
The model performs fairly well as a vanilla model with minimal fine-tuned training, in the sense that the top similar recommended images tend to be in same food category as the query image (i.e. querying a burger gives mostly burgers, and querying a salad gives mostly salads, ...). There is still much room for improvement in terms different neural network architectures, more/different training images, hyperparameter tuning to improve the generality of this model.
The algorithm:
1) Train an autoencoder with training images in the same domain as the inventory images
2) Use the trained encoder to embed both the query images and the inventory images
3) Perform kNN (euclidean/cosine similarity) to find the inventory nearest neighbour image embeddings to the query image embeddings, and keep the k closest embeddings as the top-k recommendations
### Usage:
To make sure our similar images finder (trained on steakhouse food images) works on our test images,
1. Run the command:
> python
When the run is complete, your answer images can be found in the `output` directory. However, if you would like to train the model from scratch then:
1. In ``, set:
* `model_name` to either `"simpleAE"` (1 FC hidden layer) or `"convAE"` (CNN)
* `process_and_save_images = True` to perform the proper pre-processing of the images
* `train_model = True` to instruct the program to train the model from scratch (it also saves it once the training is complete)
2. Run the command:
> python
### Required libraries:
* numpy, matplotlib, pylab, sklearn, keras, h5py, pillow
### Authors:
Anson Wong
\ No newline at end of file
''' (author: Anson Wong / git: ankonzoid)
Image similarity recommender system using an autoencoder-clustering model.
Autoencoder method:
1) Train an autoencoder (simple/Conv) on training images in 'db/images_training'
2) Saves trained autoencoder, encoder, and decoder to 'db/models'
Clustering method:
3) Using our trained encoder in 'db/models', we encode inventory images in 'db/images_inventory'
4) Train kNN model using encoded inventory images
5) Encode query images in 'query', and predict their NN using our trained kNN model
6) Compute a score for each inventory encoding relative to our query encoding (centroid/closest)
7) Make k-recommendations by cloning top-k inventory images into 'answer'
import sys, os, shutil
import numpy as np
from autoencoders.AE import AE
from clustering.KNN import KNearestNeighbours
from utilities.image_utilities import ImageUtils
from utilities.sorting import find_topk_unique
from utilities.plot_utilities import PlotUtils
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
def main():
# ========================================
# Set run settings
# ========================================
# Choose autoencoder model
#model_name = "simpleAE"
model_name = "convAE"
process_and_save_images = False # image preproc: resize images and save?
train_autoencoder = False # train from scratch?
# ========================================
# Automated pre-processing
# ========================================
## Set flatten properties ###
if model_name == "simpleAE":
flatten_before_encode = True
flatten_after_encode = False
elif model_name == "convAE":
flatten_before_encode = False
flatten_after_encode = True
raise Exception("Invalid model name which is not simpleAE/convAE")
img_shape = (100, 100) # force resize -> (ypixels, xpixels)
ratio_train_test = 0.8
seed = 100
loss = "binary_crossentropy"
optimizer = "adam"
n_epochs = 100
batch_size = 128
save_reconstruction_on_load_model = False
### KNN training parameters ###
n_neighbors = 5 # number of nearest neighbours
metric = "cosine" # kNN metric (cosine only compatible with brute force)
algorithm = "brute" # search algorithm
recommendation_method = 2 # 1 = centroid kNN, 2 = all points kNN
output_mode = 1 # 1 = output plot, 2 = output inventory db image clones
# ========================================
# Generate expected file/folder paths and settings
# ========================================
# Assume project root directory to be directory of file
project_root = os.path.dirname(__file__)
print("Project root: {0}".format(project_root))
# Query and answer folder
query_dir = os.path.join(project_root, 'test')
answer_dir = os.path.join(project_root, 'output')
# In database folder
db_dir = os.path.join(project_root, 'db')
img_train_raw_dir = os.path.join(project_root, 'db-raw')
img_inventory_raw_dir = os.path.join(project_root, 'db-raw')
img_train_dir = os.path.join(db_dir)
img_inventory_dir = os.path.join(db_dir)
# Run output
models_dir = os.path.join('models')
# Set info file
info = {
# Run settings
"img_shape": img_shape,
"flatten_before_encode": flatten_before_encode,
"flatten_after_encode": flatten_after_encode,
# Directories
"query_dir": query_dir,
"answer_dir": answer_dir,
"img_train_raw_dir": img_train_raw_dir,
"img_inventory_raw_dir": img_inventory_raw_dir,
"img_train_dir": img_train_dir,
"img_inventory_dir": img_inventory_dir,
# Run output
"models_dir": models_dir
# Initialize image utilities (and register encoder)
IU = ImageUtils()
# Initialize plot utilities
PU = PlotUtils()
# ========================================
# Pre-process save/load training and inventory images
# ========================================
# Process and save
if process_and_save_images:
# Training images
# Inventory images
# ========================================
# Train autoencoder
# ========================================
# Set up autoencoder base class
if train_autoencoder:
print("Training the autoencoder...")
# Generate naming conventions
dictfn = MODEL.generate_naming_conventions(model_name, models_dir)
MODEL.start_report(dictfn) # start report
# Load training images to memory (resizes when necessary)
x_data_all, all_filenames = \
IU.raw2resizednorm_load(raw_dir=img_train_dir, img_shape=img_shape)
print("\nAll data:")
print(" x_data_all.shape = {0}\n".format(x_data_all.shape))
# Split images to training and validation set
x_data_train, x_data_test, index_train, index_test = \
IU.split_train_test(x_data_all, ratio_train_test, seed)
print("\nSplit data:")
print("x_data_train.shape = {0}".format(x_data_train.shape))
print("x_data_test.shape = {0}\n".format(x_data_test.shape))
# Flatten data if necessary
if flatten_before_encode:
x_data_train = IU.flatten_img_data(x_data_train)
x_data_test = IU.flatten_img_data(x_data_test)
print("\nFlattened data:")
print("x_data_train.shape = {0}".format(x_data_train.shape))
print("x_data_test.shape = {0}\n".format(x_data_test.shape))
# Set up architecture and compile model
MODEL.compile(loss=loss, optimizer=optimizer)
MODEL.append_arch_report(dictfn) # append to report
# Train model
MODEL.append_message_report(dictfn, "Start training") # append to report
MODEL.train(x_data_train, x_data_test,
n_epochs=n_epochs, batch_size=batch_size)
MODEL.append_message_report(dictfn, "End training") # append to report
# Save model to file
# Save reconstructions to file
MODEL.plot_save_reconstruction(x_data_test, img_shape, dictfn, n_plot=10)
# Generate naming conventions
dictfn = MODEL.generate_naming_conventions(model_name, models_dir)
# Load models
# Compile model
MODEL.compile(loss=loss, optimizer=optimizer)
# Save reconstructions to file
if save_reconstruction_on_load_model:
x_data_all, all_filenames = \
IU.raw2resizednorm_load(raw_dir=img_train_dir, img_shape=img_shape)
if flatten_before_encode:
x_data_all = IU.flatten_img_data(x_data_all)
MODEL.plot_save_reconstruction(x_data_all, img_shape, dictfn, n_plot=10)
# ========================================
# Perform clustering recommendation
# ========================================
# Load inventory images to memory (resizes when necessary)
x_data_inventory, inventory_filenames = \
IU.raw2resizednorm_load(raw_dir=img_inventory_dir, img_shape=img_shape)
print("\nx_data_inventory.shape = {0}\n".format(x_data_inventory.shape))
# Explictly assign loaded encoder
encoder = MODEL.encoder
# Encode our data, then flatten to encoding dimensions
# We switch names for simplicity: inventory -> train, query -> test
print("Encoding data and flatten its encoding dimensions...")
if flatten_before_encode: # Flatten the data before encoder prediction
x_data_inventory = IU.flatten_img_data(x_data_inventory)
x_train_kNN = encoder.predict(x_data_inventory)
if flatten_after_encode: # Flatten the data after encoder prediction
x_train_kNN = IU.flatten_img_data(x_train_kNN)
print("\nx_train_kNN.shape = {0}\n".format(x_train_kNN.shape))
x_mean = np.mean(x_train_kNN, axis=0)
x_stds = np.std(x_train_kNN, axis=0)
x_cov = np.cov((x_train_kNN - x_mean).T)
e, v = np.linalg.eig(x_cov)
e_list = e.tolist()
plt.figure(figsize=(1, 1))[0]), e_list, align='center')
plt.savefig(os.path.join(answer_dir, "1.png"), bbox_inches='tight')
decoder = MODEL.decoder
myev = np.zeros((16))
myev[0] = 0
x = x_mean +, (myev).T).T
x = np.reshape(x, (2, 2, 4))
img = decoder.predict(np.expand_dims(x, axis=0))
PU.save_image(np.squeeze(img, axis=0), os.path.join(answer_dir, "2.png"))
# =================================
# Train kNN model
# =================================
print("Performing kNN to locate nearby items to user centroid points...")
EMB = KNearestNeighbours() # initialize embedding kNN class
EMB.compile(n_neighbors=n_neighbors, algorithm=algorithm, metric=metric) # compile kNN model # fit kNN
# =================================
# Perform kNN on query images
# =================================
# Read items in query folder
print("Reading query images from query folder: {0}".format(query_dir))
# Load query images to memory (resizes when necessary)
x_data_query, query_filenames = \
n_query = len(x_data_query)
print("\nx_data_query.shape = {0}\n".format(x_data_query.shape))
# Encode query images
if flatten_before_encode: # Flatten the data before encoder prediction
x_data_query = IU.flatten_img_data(x_data_query)
# Perform kNN on each query image
for ind_query in range(n_query):
# Encode query image (and flatten if needed)
newshape = (1,) + x_data_query[ind_query].shape
x_query_i_use = x_data_query[ind_query].reshape(newshape)
x_test_kNN = encoder.predict(x_query_i_use)
query_filename = query_filenames[ind_query]
name, tag = IU.extract_name_tag(query_filename) # extract name and tag
print("({0}/{1}) Performing kNN on query '{2}'...".format(ind_query+1, n_query, name))
if flatten_after_encode: # Flatten the data after encoder prediction
x_test_kNN = IU.flatten_img_data(x_test_kNN)
# ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# Compute distances and indices for recommendation
# ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
if recommendation_method == 1: # kNN centroid transactions
# Compute centroid point of the query encoding vectors (equal weights)
x_test_kNN_centroid = np.mean(x_test_kNN, axis = 0)
# Find nearest neighbours to centroid point
distances, indices = EMB.predict(np.array([x_test_kNN_centroid]))
elif recommendation_method == 2: # kNN all transactions
# Find k nearest neighbours to all transactions, then flatten the distances and indices
distances, indices = EMB.predict(x_test_kNN)
distances = distances.flatten()
indices = indices.flatten()
# Pick k unique training indices which have the shortest distances any transaction point
indices, distances = find_topk_unique(indices, distances, n_neighbors)
raise Exception("Invalid method for making recommendations")
print(" x_test_kNN.shape = {0}".format(x_test_kNN.shape))
print(" distances = {0}".format(distances))
print(" indices = {0}\n".format(indices))
# =============================================
# Output results
# =============================================
if output_mode == 1:
result_filename = os.path.join(answer_dir, "result_" + name + ".png")
x_query_plot = x_data_query[ind_query].reshape((-1, img_shape[0], img_shape[1], 3))
x_answer_plot = x_data_inventory[indices].reshape((-1, img_shape[0], img_shape[1], 3))
elif output_mode == 2:
# Clone answer file to answer folder
# Make k-recommendations and clone most similar inventory images to answer dir
print("Cloning k-recommended inventory images to answer folder '{0}'...".format(answer_dir))
for i, (index, distance) in enumerate(zip(indices, distances)):